Sensorineural Hearing Loss Causes

Congential

  • Rubella Syndrome

  • Atresia of the External Ear Canal.

  • Congenital Cytomegalovirus

  • Congenital Perilymphatic Fistula

  • Fetal Methyl Mercury Effects

  • Fetal Iodine Deficiency Effects

Medications (Ototoxic Drugs)

  • Aminoglycoside Antibiotics-streptomycin, Kanamyin, Neomycin, Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramicin and Netilmicin

  • Loop Diuretics, Ethacrynic Acid

  • Antimalarial (Quinine, Chloroquine)

  • Salicylates

  • NSAIDS

  • Vancomycin

  • Erythromycin

  • Cisplatinum

Immunologic Diseases

Immunologic activity within the cochlea may be the cause as suggested by finding of antibodies and response to steroid therapy in many patients. Hearing loss in certain autoimmune diseases is documented.

  • Cogan’s Syndrome

  • Systemic Lupus erythomatosus

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Temporal arteritis

Traumatic

Direct trauma (temporal bone fracture) or blunt head injury (concussion to labyrinth) can cause SNHL.

  • Traumatic ear drum Perforation

  • Head Injuries

  • Skull Fracture (Temporal Bone)

Other Systemic Diseases

  • Leukemia

  • Diabetes

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Multiple Sclerosis

  • Ménière’s Disease

  • Syphilis

Acoustic Trauma

  • Explosions

  • Fireworks

  • Gunfire

  • Rock Concerts/Mp3 Players

  • Jets

  • Occupational Work Noise

BAROTRAUMA and Perilymphatic Fistula

Barotraumas is caused by unequalized pressure differentials in middle ear and external ear such as in scuba diving, air traveling or blow to ear. If the pressure is severe, eardrum can rupture.

Barotrauma can cause acquired perilymphatic fistula (communication between inner ear and middle ear) leading to SSNHL and vertigo. Other causes of acquired perilymphatic fistula are direct or indirect trauma to temporal bone, heavy lifting or straining and complication of stapes surgery.

Tumors

  • Acoustic Neuroma or Vestibular Schwannoma – SSNHL may be initial manifestation

  • Temporal Bone Metastases

  • Neoplasm of CPA or IAC


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