The gut (gastrointestinal tract) is the tube that starts at the mouth, and ends at the anus. The upper gut includes the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Food passes down the esophagus (gullet) into the stomach. Stomach secretes acid to help digest food. Food then gradually passes to small intestine where enzymes from pancreas coming thru pancreatic duct and Bile from Gall Bladder coming thru bile duct breaks down food. Digested food is absorbed from small intestine.
The symptoms of indigestion include:
Bloating (feeling of fullness)
Belching and Gas
Nausea and vomiting
Pain in abdomen specially after eating
Symptoms may increase in times of stress.
Indigestion has many causes, including:
Stomach cancer (rare)
Gastroparesis (a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly; this often occurs in diabetics)
Irritable bowel syndrome
Aspirin and many other painkillers
Estrogen and oral contraceptives
Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations
Drinking too much alcohol
Stress and fatigue
Sometimes people have persistent indigestion where no known cause is found and endoscopy is normal. This type of indigestion is called functional, or nonulcer dyspepsia. Infection with a bacterium (germ) called Helicobacter pyloriis considered as a probable factor.
Through history and Examination
Blood test or X_ray
Upper GI Endoscopy
Treatment usually depends upon the underlying condition causing the indigestion.
Helpful tips to prevent indigestion:
Not to chew with your mouth open, talk while chewing, or eat too fast. Eat slowly
This causes you to swallow too much air, which can aggravate indigestion.
Eat small frequent meals
Drink fluids after rather than during meals.
Avoid late-night eating.
Try to relax after meals.
Do not exercise with a full stomach
Do not lie down right after eating.
Wait at least 3 hours after your last meal of the day before going to bed
Avoid spicy foods and acidic foods
Learn relaxing techniques to relieve stress
Avoid wearing tight-fitting garments because they tend to compress the stomach
Raise the head of your bed.
Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
Vomiting or blood in vomit (the vomit may look like coffee grounds)
Unexpected weight loss
Loss of appetite
Black, tarry stools or visible blood in stools
Severe pain in upper right abdomen
Pain in upper or lower right abdomen
Discomfort unrelated to eating
Symptoms similar to indigestion may be caused by heart attacks. If indigestion is unusual, accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck or arm seek doctors advice immediately.