Swelling appears on coughing/straining and disappears on lying down
Defect size finger breadth
Small, indirect, incomplete reducible hernia
Swelling limited to inguinal canal
Moderate size direct hernia
Swelling present on standing and reduces in the supine position
Defect thumb size
Small indirect reducible
Reducible femoral hernia
Moderate size indirect reducible
Swelling extends up to neck of the scrotum but not to the testis
Large reducible direct hernia
Recurrent groin hernia
Large, reducible, indirect
Sac extending up to testis
Large complete indirect inguinal hernia partially reducible or irreducible
Irreducible femoral hernia
Inguinal (Groin) Inguinal hernias appear as a bulge in the groin. They are more common in men than women. Patients may develop small intermittent bulges that show up while performing strenuous tasks.
Femoral Hernias:Femoral hernias are relatively rare type of hernia that occurs below the groin crease on the anterior thigh. These hernias are far more common in females.
Inguinal (Groin): Ventral hernias occur on the anterior (front) abdominal wall at areas of weakness. It may occur as a result of prior surgery, coughing, heavy lifting, obesity, smoking or other disorders. Types of ventral hernias.
Umbilical Hernia: at the navel or belly button. Most common type of ventral hernia.
Epigastric Hernia: middle of the abdomen above the belly button and below the breast bone. These hernias contain fatty tissue and often quite small
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) present at birth abdominal organs may slip in to the chest cavity.
Hiatus Hernia (diaphragmatic hernia) – stomach or other organs of abdomen slips into chest through the diaphragm (muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest and help in breathing). Stomach or other organs of abdomen may enter into the chest
Hiatal hernias may be incidental finding in chest X-Ray or may present as heartburn, regurgitation, reflux, chest pain, difficulty swallowing or painful swallowing.
Hiatal hernias can be treated with medication and diets changes, but sometimes require surgery.
Incisional Hernia:Occurs at the site of a prior abdominal incision.
Parastomal Hernia: Occurs at the site of a colostomy, ileostomy or other stoma (intestines sutured to the skin).
Spigelian Hernia:Occurs in the lower quadrants of the abdomen, usually at or below the level of the belly button.
Sports Hernia:Sports hernias are small, painful hernias as a result of a tear in the abdominal wall. Most common in athletes in sports that involve twisting the leg while running full speed. Most patients present with persistent groin pain that lasts for months despite adequate rest.
There is no acceptable medical treatment of hernia. Once a hernia has developed it will tend to enlarge and cause discomfort. Delayed hernia repair can result in complications.
If a loop of bowel gets caught in the hernia it may become obstructed or its blood supply may be cut off (strangulated). This could then become a life-threatening situation. Since hernias can be repaired effectively and with minimal risk most surgeons therefore recommend that surgery for hernia should be performed as an elective procedure unless there are other serious medical problems.
There are two main options for hernia repair:
Standard Open Repair:Performed routinely with local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation.
It involves a 10cm cut in the groin, ﬁnding the hernia, reduction of contents back to the abdomen and patching the defect with polypropylene mesh to strengthen the area of weakness to prevent the hernia from coming back.
Tension Free Hernia Repair:Tension Free Mesh technique is preferred method of hernia repair and ideal for Inguinal Hernia. An incision is made directly over the site of hernia. Hernia content are pushed back inside and Specially designed mesh is placed is placed on the inside of weakness in the abdominal wall.
Mesh acts as platform for new tissue growth and it incorporates safely into abdominal wall.
Minimally Invasive (Laparoscopic or key hole) Repair: Longer time of rest (average 6 weeks) after surgery and the chance of the hernia coming back (recurrent hernia) are some of the limitation of open Hernia surgery which led to rapid popularity of Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery all over the world and in India. Laparoscopic Hernia Repair using small incisions offers rapid recovery, less pain and quick return to work.