The nasal septum is a thin wall (made up of Bone+cartilage) which divides nose into two halves. Ideal nasal septum is exactly in the midline but 70-80-% septum are not in the center making one side smaller but there may not be any problem. When Nasal septum is badly bend to (deviated) one side or crooked then it can cause symptoms and require treatment.
Blockage of nose-same/opposite or both side
Nose congestion (LINK)
Frequent nose bleeds
Frequent sinus infection becuase of impaired sinus drainage
Post nasal drip
Noisy breathing/snoring/sleep apnea
It is normal for the nose to alternate being obstructed on one side, then changing to being obstructed on the other. This is called the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is a normal phenomenon, but being aware of the nasal cycle is unusual and can be an indication that there is an abnormal amount of nasal obstruction.
Some people may prefer to sleep on a particular side in order to optimize breathing through the nose at night. This can be due to a deviated septum that narrows one nasal passage.
Deviated septum can be easiy seen on examination of nasal cavity by headlight or nasal endoscopy
Probable theory of DNS Trauma to nose while birth or after birth By birth
Surgery for deviated nasal septum : Septoplasty
Sometimes symptoms of deviated nasal septum occur after attack of cold , when lining of nose is swollen/inflamed which can be relieved by medcation. If medine does not give proper relief then Septoplasty is surgical procedure to correct a deviated nasal septum.
Surgery is performed through the nose, no external cut is given.
Time required for the surgery is approx 1 hour Can be done under local or general anaesthesia. A cut is made in the covering of septum, Deviated portion of septum are removed to straighten septum. After surgery nose may be packed for 1 day.
Septoplasty is very commonly done and safe procedure. Side effects though are rare but no surgery is completely risk free and may include-
Perforation Nasal Septum